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All viruses have to penetrate, replicate and exit a cell. The details of how they do this varies.
  The life cyle is generally divided into four stages.
1. Attachment
Attachment is a specific binding between viral surface proteins and their receptors on the host cellular surface. This specificity determines the host range of a virus.
2. Penetration
Once the virus attaches to the cell the virus may enter the host cell through receptor mediated endocytosis or other mechanisms.
3. Uncoating
Uncoating is a process that viral capsid is degraded by viral enzymes or host enzymes.
4. Replication
Replication involves assembly of viral proteins and genetic materials produced in the host cell.
5. Release
Viruses may escape from the host cell by causing cell rupture (lysis). Enveloped viruses (e.g., HIV) typically "bud" from the host cell. During the budding process, a virus acquires the phospholipid envelope containing the embedded viral glycoproteins.
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