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Metabolic Alkalosis
 
Alkalosis is a condition in which the body fluids have excess base. Disorders that affect HCO3 concentration are called metabolic acidosis

If the pH goes higher than 7.50, the patient is in a state of alkalosis. The abnormal acid-base balance is considered serious, even though the body can compensate for an upward or downward change in the pH.

Shifts in the pH of body fluids are controlled by three major regulatory systems which may be classified as chemical (the buffer systems), biological (blood and cellular activity), and physiological (the lungs and kidneys).
 
 

The kidneys produce and regulate the retention of HCO3- (bicarbonate), a base that increases the blood’s pH.

Too much HCO3 retained, will eventually lead to metabolic alkalosis. Changes in the concentration of HCO3 occur slowly, taking hours or days.

Causes of metabolic alkalosis:

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Respiratory alkalosis is caused by low carbon dioxide levels. Being at a high altitude or having a disease that reduces oxygen in the blood can cause you to breathe faster (hyperventilate), which lowers carbon dioxide levels.
Metabolic alkalosis is caused by too much bicarbonate in the blood.
Hypochloremic alkalosis is caused by an extreme lack or loss of chloride, which can occur with prolonged vomiting.
Hypokalemic alkalosis is caused by the kidneys' response to an extreme lack or loss of potassium, which can occur when people take certain diuretic medications.
Compensated alkalosis occurs when the body returns the acid/base balance to normal in cases of alkalosis, but bicarbonate and carbon dioxide levels remain abnormal.
 
 

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